Basically these articles describes about the cross examination teaches that what question should be ask and what should not to be asked while cross examination to protect the self respect and dignity of the witness as the witness is providing of the evidence of the incident claiming in the court and if that witness should be pressurised or harass so witness would never be ready a witness basically helps the court procedure so these articles protect the rights liable on the witness and some questions are banned basically cross is been done when the witness has been given examination chief any statement for what he is a witness and cross is been done to prove his statement wrong and to satisfy the court that the witness statement is wrong so all questions are allowed in the court but qanon e shad-at restrict some questions so a witness should not be harassed.
Article 139 evidence in writing it means a witness provides his statement in writing form evidence of terms of contract or deed which is an written form an documentary evidence which excludes oral document if the documentary evidence is present so oral document would be excluded as the court firstly admits an documentary evidence for example if ali contract ahmed for 500 shoes but ahmed didn’t give so ali firstly will produce the document of contract made by ali and ahmed article 139 is the application of article 103 and 103 of qanon e shad-at.
Article 140 cross examination as to previous statement in writing this concept is cross is been done to prove the statement wrong of the witness and tell the court that this witness is not admissible as he is not truthful article 140 can ask the previous statement of the witness for example if legal heirs don’t want the share of the land of there father and then in other case legal heirs claims for the share so the previous statement is been called.
Article 141 Question lawful in cross examination as the object of cross examination is not to harass the witness that an advocate has no right to harass the witness that the witness should change his statement that witness should not be terrified and should never degrade of witness respect to shake check veracity of witness and to check that who is and shake his credit by injuring his character for example if a person had a criminal record so he could not be a witness as he has a bad record .
Article 142 Incriminating question means a question which converts a witness into criminal as a witness comes to give a statement but a question which is asked that if he has done crime so a privilege is given to the witness when the witness object the question and if the witness not object but gives answer so a criminal charges can apply on him.
Article 143 discretion of court allows any question the court has the power to choose and decide that what question can be asked and what can not be as court has the power to stop or allow the question if any advocate ask question during cross examination comes in the way of qazaf that a most inappropriate question for example zina so that advocate have to prove what he claims on the witness so remote question is strictly prohibited.
Article 144 reasonable ground an advocate can not ask without some reasonable ground if a person is a not a murderer but advocate ask him are you a murderer without any reasonable grounds and without reasonable grounds that question can not be ask as its court responsibility to take notice.
Article 145 is as the procedure of court question without reasonable grounds
Article 146 indecent or scandalous question totally court will reject or deny as any question asked which can scandalous the witness so this type of question can not be asked.
Article147 Defamations procedure that the accused has given a defamatory statement so till that statement is not prove the witness can not be asked any question which can defame the witness. So can defame someone else if he is living or dead .
Article 148 Questions intended to insult that question can not be asked that totally annoyed or insult witness.
Article 149 Evidence contradict veracity if there is a witness and he is been crossed if a question asked to spoil the character of the witness is that the witness is dismiss from his services but the witness says no so we have to provide the dismissal order to prove that witness is false saying so this evidence is not admissible.